The white-tailed deer is back from the brink of extinction in the East. Great news, right? Well . . .
By James Barnes
For The Piedmont Virginian
Fall is a busy time for wildlife in the Piedmont, particularly for mammals as they rush to prepare for the coming winter — storing food caches, finding mates and burrowing den sites. During this time, white-tailed deer enter “the rut”: hormones rage, antlers grow and males seek out females.
Historically, it’s this time of year when you are most likely to see deer, especially as bucks pursue does and the does play coy. But today, you are very likely to encounter deer any time of year — not just during the rut.
It wasn’t always as easy to see deer. In the 1930s, white-tailed deer were virtually extinct in Virginia; to come across one was a remarkable occurrence. Since then, we’ve seen a dramatic turnaround in the population, and this great restoration success has brought with it new challenges.
White-tailed deer are the only deer species found in eastern North America. They have an enormous range, extending from Canada all the way to Peru. In other words, deer are generalists when it comes to their needs. They also have remarkable reproductive potential. A female can have one to three fawns every year starting at 1.5 years. This means a population can double about every one to two years if there is sufficient habitat and low mortality rates.
White-tails are excellent at avoiding being eaten, having evolved with a host of potential predators. Our region was once home to a number of predators — including wolves, mountain lions and black bears. Yet, wolves and cougars no longer inhabit the East Coast today due to humans (any sightings are either dispersed lone individuals from the west or released pets). Today, black bears and coyotes (new to Virginia) are known to occasionally hunt deer, but it is safe to say a much smaller number of deer are taken down by other animals.
A deer’s real predator in modern times is man. Prior to the creation of state wildlife agencies in the early 20th century, deer were hunted by anyone, at any time of year. This changed with the advent of wildlife management science, which resulted in tightly controlled hunting. White-tails slowly but steadily rebounded from near zero to an estimated one million in Virginia today. Similar conservation success stories have played out for turkey, bear, beavers and other species hunted near extinction.
When hunting and predation changed, the landscape changed too. Prior to Europeans’ arrival, Eastern North America was thought to have been a vast, nearly contiguous deciduous forest — not ideal deer habitat. But things changed as the country developed. The number of hunters dropped and access to hunting grounds became more difficult. Eventually vast suburbs, with their particularly deer-friendly landscapes, multiplied. It was the perfect recipe for a deer population explosion.
Overabundant deer create a whole host of problems for people and the environment, but here are a few of the biggest:
• Traffic collisions: In Virginia you have a one percent chance of hitting a deer any given year. That’s higher than most states and enough to label us as a “high risk state” by State Farm Insurance.
• Lyme disease: White-tailed deer do not carry Lyme disease, but they do act as hosts for black-legged ticks (deer ticks) — the carrier of Lyme. More deer means more ticks, which means more Lyme disease.
• Non-native invasive plants: Much of our invasive plant problem is connected to excessive deer. Deer do not like the taste of many invasive plants (e.g. Japanese barberry, Stiltgrass, etc.), allowing these plants to grow unchecked. Deer also inadvertently spread the seeds of these non-native plants.
• Native plants: At the same time, deer really like to eat many of our native plants, since they co-evolved with them. Rare orchids, the American chestnut, oak seedlings and spring wildflowers are all among their favorite foods. This can lead to the local extinction of plants as deer over-browse them.
• Forest regeneration: Good, sustainable forestry is near impossible when white-tailed deer populations are high, because native forest regeneration is often inhibited by their browsing.
• Native wildlife: Excessive deer populations can eliminate habitat for other species. Populations of ground-nesting and low tree-nesting birds, such as wood thrushes and American Redstarts, decline when deer eat all their natural cover. Deer also gorge on our semi-biennial oak acorn crop, competing with other mammals and birds for this critical food source.
Some believe that nature will sort things out in the long-term. That may eventually occur if wolves, mountain lions and other top predators return. But we are a long way from having (or allowing) packs of wolves or prowling cougars in the suburbs of Loudoun and Albemarle. Diseases in the deer population may also reduce numbers, and we may already be seeing this with illnesses like chronic wasting disease. Although, this, too, is not preferred for many reasons.
In the meantime, the environment could use our help, so what’s a person to do?
• Landowner: Take up hunting! Hunting is the single most effective way to manage deer populations. So, if possible, open your lands to hunting. It’s the perfect source of totally carbon-neutral, native meat and a great way to really connect to nature. The Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries has a wealth of information on their website. And Hunters for the Hungry is a non-profit that gives away meat to local food shelters as a way to help people in need.
• Groups of landowners: If possible, coordinate hunting with as many neighbors as possible. Deer are smart and their local populations are usually so large that culling from one property isn’t enough to affect their numbers. Landowners can apply also for an out-of season deer permit.
• Citizen: Raise awareness with neighbors and public officials. The more this issue is connected to other issues — threats to public health and agriculture, for instance — the more likely it is that policies and opinions will change. And encourage land conservation: Suburban development provides great deer habitat and limits hunting access.
James Barnes is Sustainable Habitat Program Manager with The Piedmont Environmental Council.