Manuscript art of the Pennsylvania Germans

Don Olson American Antiques & Folk Art
Marriage certificate, dated 1805, from Berks County, Pa. This watercolor on laid paper was created by Samuel Moffly. It was likely folded and stored away for generations enabling the colors to remain vivid. Don Olson American Antiques & Folk Art

Between 1720 and 1820, more than 100,000 German-speaking people entered the port of Philadelphia seeking a life free from religious persecution. Most were peasants and small farmers, and they eventually moved from the city to the fertile soil of southeastern Pennsylvania. Later generations traveled further south into the Shenandoah Valley through Maryland, Virginia and the Carolinas.

Although agriculture was their major industry, as their society became more firmly rooted, farmer-craftsmen turned some of their energies to producing and decorating the many articles of daily life, including fraktur — illuminated documents recording family events. The name “fraktur” derives from the angular, fractured appearance of the familiar Gothic typeface used in deeds and official edicts in 16th century Europe.

The fraktur artist held several positions within the Pennsylvania German community. As the representative of learning, he was often the schoolmaster as well as clergyman. With his skills in drawing and writing, he performed such services as illustrating books and hymnals and drawing up important documents. These sunny creations contrasted with much religious art of the time, since sin and pain were rarely depicted.

Pennsylvania Germans usually made fraktur for personal use, and instead of hanging fraktur in their homes, people most often rolled-up fraktur documents and tucked them away, pasted them underneath the lids of storage chests, or kept them neatly folded inside books and Bibles. The great care many Pennsylvania Germans took to preserve these documents is a touching reminder that fraktur commemorated important and personal life events.

Jeffrey S. Evans & Associates
Framed fraktur by Peter Bernhart of the Shenandoah Valley, dated 1814, sold at auction for $15,500. Jeffrey S. Evans & Associates

Fraktur – especially birth and baptismal certificates – became very popular by the late 1700s. By 1780, various communities developed fraktur printing presses to be able to make more fraktur in a shorter amount of time. Many professional fraktur artists used these printed “blanks” to keep up with client demand. Artists continued to personalize each mass-produced document.

These printed forms were often sold by itinerants and at rural stores. A skilled calligrapher, perhaps the itinerant himself, would fill in the clients’ personal information and often hand-colored or embellished printed designs with borders and outlines of birds, flowers and other decorative flourishes. Although not strictly speaking “certificates,” since no one in authority had signed them, they have been regarded as legal documents. Since law in the old country required such documents, the tradition was continued in America.

Fraktur are some of the earliest examples of folk art found in the Shenandoah Valley. Despite the fact that Shenandoah Valley fraktur artists seldom signed their work, several did. Peter Bernhart, a Rockingham County schoolteacher and mail carrier was one of the most prolific. He worked from about 1796 to 1819 and rode from his home near Keezletown to Winchester every other Wednesday to begin his postal route. He arrived in Rockingham County by Friday and finished the route in Staunton on Saturday. Bernhart functioned as a post rider over this course for nearly 30 years, creating fraktur for clients along his route. He nearly always included not only his name, but also the date of when he made the fraktur.

Many of his paintings were created on pre-printed blanks produced for him by local printers. He would carry the forms with him on his routes, and when called upon to produce fraktur, he would fill in the blanks with the pertinent information and then embellish the document with the painting around the borders. Although his paintings were often crudely executed and his spelling poor, his creations showed a unique style of amusing designs and bright colors.

Another Valley fraktur artist that has never been identified by name, and is simply known as the Stony Creek Artist, produced works in German and English. Often, his paintings depicted cherubs, drawn-back curtains and hearts.

These Valley fraktur artists provide an important key to the important families of the Shenandoah Valley during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Traditional fraktur designs of the 19th century feature pomegranates, angels, trees and flowers and birds. The intricacy of design, selection of color and particular historical relevance to a family or place are factors that affect the price of a painting. Prices of fraktur done by preeminent artists have soared into the $10,000 to $50,000 range. Although a piece by Peter Bernhart recently sold at auction for $15,500, against its estimate of $8,000-$12,000, some beautifully rendered examples by lesser-known artists can still be found for under $1,000.

Michelle Galler is an antiques dealer, design consultant and realtor based in Georgetown. Her shop is in Rare Finds, in Washington, Va. Contact her at

Michelle Galler
About Michelle Galler 31 Articles
Michelle Galler has been an antique dealer and consultant for more than 25 years. Her business, Antiques, Whimsies & Curiosities, is based in Washington, Va. If you have questions or finds, email her at